1. 51137.695147
    In this article, I try to shed new light on Frege’s envisaged definitional introduction of real and complex numbers in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (1884) and the status of cross-sortal identity claims with side glances at Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (vol. I 1893, vol. II 1903). As far as I can see, this topic has not yet been discussed in the context of Grundlagen. I show why Frege’s strategy in the case of the projected definitions of real and complex numbers in Grundlagen is modelled on his definitional introduction of cardinal numbers in two steps, tentatively via a contextual definition and finally and definitively via an explicit definition. I argue that the strategy leaves a few important questions open, in particular one relating to the status of the envisioned abstraction principles for the real and complex numbers and another concerning the proper handling of cross-sortal identity claims.
    Found 14 hours, 12 minutes ago on Rush T. Stewart's site
  2. 91350.695532
    Is value personal in the sense that what is of value is of value for someone, or is it impersonal in the sense that what is of value, while it pertains to a subject, is of value simpliciter. Ross was a staunch proponent of the view that value is impersonal. I am a proponent of the view that value is personal.
    Found 1 day, 1 hour ago on L. Nandi Theunissen's site
  3. 106436.69563
    Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) of Damascus was a prominent Sunnī religious scholar, activist, and reformer who sought to root out religious innovation and return Islam to the Qurʾān, the practice (sunna) of the Prophet Muḥammad, and the interpretations of the early Muslims (salaf). Ibn Taymiyya is best known today as a major inspiration to the global Salafism movement (Meijer 2009). A few modern scholars have heralded him as a philosopher on account of his nominalism, empiricism, and similarities with the philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes, d. 1198) (Ajhar 2014; Tamer 2013 provides a survey of such views).
    Found 1 day, 5 hours ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  4. 219692.695664
    Research on the role of values in science and objectivity has typically approached trust through its epistemic aspects. Yet, recent work on public trust in science has emphasized the role of non-epistemic values in building and maintaining trust. This paper will use a concept of trust that adds concerns about justice to epistemic conditions to investigate this problem in relation to public health. I will argue that trust-conducive values, particularly justice, are relevant in deciding which value influences are legitimate in scientific decision-making. Drawing on public health ethics, I will provide a consequentialist justification for employing trust-conducive values. While several concepts of justice have been explored in the context of public health, I will further draw on public health ethics, focusing on a view that brings together both distributive and procedural aspects. For illustration, I will use the case of cardiovascular disease prevention, particularly how concerns about justice apply when choosing between population-based and individual-based approaches.
    Found 2 days, 13 hours ago on PhilSci Archive
  5. 246903.695688
    On his Substack, Chris Freiman argues that libertarianism is “liberalism without exceptions.” Basically, liberals (in the European meaning of the word) and libertarians agree that the state ought to prioritize a range of civil liberties (freedom of association, freedom of speech, …) but disagree with respect to the status of property. …
    Found 2 days, 20 hours ago on The Archimedean Point
  6. 392680.695711
    This paper argues that the extended mind approach to cognition can be distinguished from its alternatives, such as embedded cognition and distributed cognition, not only in terms of metaphysics, but also in terms of epistemology. In other words, it cannot be understood in terms of a mere verbal redefinition of cognitive processing. This is because the extended mind approach differs in its theoretical virtues compared to competing approaches to cognition. The extended mind approach is thus evaluated in terms of its theoretical virtues, both essential to empirical adequacy and those that are ideal desiderata for scientific theories. While the extended mind approach may have similar internal consistency and empirical adequacy compared to other approaches, it may be more problematic in terms of its generality and simplicity as well as unificatory properties due to the cognitive bloat and the motley crew objections.
    Found 4 days, 13 hours ago on PhilSci Archive
  7. 437705.695739
    A standard line of iambic pentameter is five “feet,” each of which is an “iamb”—an unstressed, then a stressed syllable. Or so says the classical theory of English meter. Similarly, trochaic hexameter is four trochees (stressed-then-unstressed). …
    Found 5 days, 1 hour ago on Mostly Aesthetics
  8. 550063.695761
    Scientific reasoning represents complex argumentation patterns that eventually lead to scientific discoveries. Social epistemology of science provides a perspective on the scientific community as a whole and on its collective knowledge acquisition. Different techniques have been employed with the goal of maximization of scientific knowledge on the group level. These techniques include formal models and computer simulations of scientific reasoning and interaction. Still, these models have tested mainly abstract hypothetical scenarios. The present thesis instead presents data-driven approaches in social epistemology of science. A data-driven approach requires data collection and curation for its further usage, which can include creating empirically calibrated models and simulations of scientific inquiry, performing statistical analyses, or employing data-mining techniques and other procedures.
    Found 6 days, 8 hours ago on Vlasta Sikimić's site
  9. 570757.695784
    Commentary from Tina Röck on today’s post from Mazviita Chirimuuta on The Brain Abstracted (MIT Press). One way to read this book is to consider it a discussion of the limitations in our ability to understand hyper-complex, dynamic objects like the brain. …
    Found 6 days, 14 hours ago on The Brains Blog
  10. 608712.69581
    In this chapter, I discuss time in nonrelativistic quantum theories. Within an instrumentalist theory like von Neumann’s axiomatic quantum mechanics, I focus on the meaning of time as an observable quantity, on the idea of time quantization, and whether the wavefunction collapse suggests that there is a preferred temporal direction. I explore this last issue within realist quantum theories as well, focusing on time reversal symmetry, and I analyze whether some theories are more hospitable for time travel than others.
    Found 1 week ago on Valia Allori's site
  11. 608746.695834
    This is a brief review of the history and development of quantum theories. Starting from the experimental findings and theoretical results which marked the crisis of the classical framework, I overview the rise of axiomatic quantum mechanics through matrix and wave mechanics. I discuss conceptual problems such as the measurement problem that led scientific realists to explore other, more satisfactory, quantum theories, as well as Bell’s theorem and quantum nonlocality, concluding with a short review of relativistic theories.
    Found 1 week ago on Valia Allori's site
  12. 623790.695869
    Drew Leder’s new book, The Healing Body, provides rich descriptions and analyses of ways to live well when faced with bodily afflictions, such as pain, illness, impairment, and aging. “Healing,” in Leder’s sense, goes beyond medical “treatment” of bodily dysfunctions as it aspires to regain existential wholeness “with reintegration of various dimensions of life that have been torn asunder by bodily breakdown” (2024, 27). The book belongs to a broader stream of phenomenological accounts of embodiment and illness that has thrived over the last few decades. In contrast to most contributions in this field that focus on bodily breakdowns, sometimes providing alternative understandings to biomedical accounts, Leder’s new book looks to the possibilities of existential recovery, especially where medical treatment has nothing more to offer. To anyone acquainted with this field, Leder should already be well known. In fact, the present book completes the trilogy that he has been working on for more than thirty years. Leder’s most famous book, The Absent Body (1990), is the first book in the trilogy and is a phenomenological account of the absence and presence of our lived bodies. Twenty-six years later, the second book appeared, The Distressed Body (2016), which circles in on chronic pain, illness, and incarceration. Turning to healing in his third book, Leder ends his trilogy in a hopeful key.
    Found 1 week ago on PhilSci Archive
  13. 623821.695894
    Robert Chapman’s Empire of Normality: Neurodiversity and Capitalism (2023) charts thinking about normality and pathology, showing how both have links to the historical conditions set by capitalism. The book also outlines a Marxist notion of neurodiversity, which rejects liberal capitalism. In this review, I outline Chapman’s argument and highlight its strengths. I also explore a potential consequence of what Chapman does not explore in their book, which is significant for notions of neurodiversity: if we reject liberal capitalism, we might also need to reject a key assumption of liberal capitalism; namely, that people have good self-understanding.
    Found 1 week ago on PhilSci Archive
  14. 623851.695916
    Advocates of philosophy in science and biomedicine argue that philosophers can embed their ideas into scientific research in order to help solve scientific problems (Pradeu et al. 2021). One successful example of this is the philosopher Thomas Pradeu’s essay, with Sébastien Jaeger and Eric Vivier, titled “The Speed of Change: Towards a Discontinuity Theory of Immunity?” published in Nature Reviews Immunology (2013). For my PhD in philosophy of science on Alzheimer’s disease embedded in a neurology environment, I was interested in the relationship between theory and practice, with a particular focus on the dominant “amyloid cascade hypothesis” of Alzheimer’s disease that has existed since the turn of the 1990s (Hardy and Higgins 1992; Hardy 2006; Herrup 2015; Kepp et al. 2023). According to this hypothesis, one of the brain proteins that defines Alzheimer’s disease—beta-amyloid—also causes it when it accumulates (Hardy and Higgins 1992). Thus, according to the hypothesis’s proponents, removing amyloid from the brain should be the priority for developing therapeutics. However, given the absence of effective treatments for Alzheimer’s disease based on this strategy, I was interested in whether this hypothesis represented a premature convergence of consensus around an untrue idea of what causes disease.
    Found 1 week ago on PhilSci Archive
  15. 653668.69594
    Faced with an intractable problem, some philosophers employ a singular strategy: their idea is to dismiss or dissolve the problem in some way, as opposed to meeting it head on with a proposed solution. Multiversism in many of its varieties has recently emerged as a popular application of this approach to the continuum problem: CH is true in some worlds, false in others; the effort to settle it one way or the other is misguided, a pseudo-problem. My goal here is to examine a few actual and possible implementations of this strategy, but first, in the interest of transparency, I should acknowledge a tendency toward the opposing view of CH. At least for now, I believe that one of the most pressing questions in the contemporary foundations of set theory is how to extend ZFC (or ZFC+LCs) in mathematically defensible ways so as to settle CH (and other independent questions) and to produce a more fruitful theory. It seems best to begin by sketching in my own peculiar take on this opposing view. Then, with this as backdrop, I’ll turn to multiversism.
    Found 1 week ago on Penelope Maddy's site
  16. 670210.695978
    Commentary from Dimitri Coelho Mollo on today’s post from Mazviita Chirimuuta on The Brain Abstracted (MIT Press). I was lucky to have had the chance to discuss this brilliant book with Mazviita Chirimuuta and others while it was still in preparation, and I’m looking forward to exchanging ideas about it once more over here at the BrainsBlog! …
    Found 1 week ago on The Brains Blog
  17. 739312.696007
    In this brief note I will try to develop the following thesis: Gödel’s program includes a rich and exciting task for the philosopher that has been overlooked by the majority of the philosophers of set theory (let alone set theorists). Gödel’s program intends, in a nutshell, to solve Cantor’s Continuum Hypothesis (hereafter, CH) as legitimate problem by means of the addition of new axioms to ZFC that satisfy some criteria of naturalness and that, moreover, allow to derive either CH or its negation. Hence, the view encapsulated by such program clashes violently with other attitudes towards the status of CH, like those defending that CH is a problem but is solved by the independence phenomenon itself , those that argue that CH is a vague statement and therefore is ill-posed as a problem and, finally, those that regard the axiom-adding proposals as incapable of settling the question .
    Found 1 week, 1 day ago on PhilSci Archive
  18. 786210.696032
    Is it possible, for instance, that the ratio between the diameter and circumference of a Euclidean circle be something other than the number π? If so, what would it be like to live in a Euclidean world where that ratio is different — wouldn’t something go horribly wrong? If you think the answer here is obvious, what about the more abstract mathematical claims, such as 4, 5 and 6 above, which also can have interpretations in Euclidean physical space, but are independent of our most widely accepted mathematical and physical theories?
    Found 1 week, 2 days ago on Andrew Bacon's site
  19. 826949.696055
    Over the last couple of weeks, we have been seeing in France many pro-Palestinian student protests of the same kind as in U.S. university campuses. The most active (though relatively speaking they are few) have been some students of the French elite school Sciences Po. …
    Found 1 week, 2 days ago on The Archimedean Point
  20. 856238.696077
    John Italos (fl. 1070s) was a prominent and controversial intellectual figure in eleventh-century Byzantium. An immigrant from Byzantine Italy, he made a stellar career in Constantinople succeeding Michael Psellos as head of the imperially sponsored school of philosophy. His dialectical method and combative temper made him a renowned figure in the Eastern Mediterranean. Among his students counted the future Constantinopolitan elite as well as foreigners from the Latin West, the Near East, and the Caucasus. His meteoric rise and Platonic teachings gained him not only admiration but also fierce opposition, which led to his repeated investigation in 1076/77 and 1082.
    Found 1 week, 2 days ago on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  21. 912304.696098
    Article reuse guidelines: sagepub.com/journals-permissions https://doi.org/10.1177/17456916231187405 DOI: 10.1177/17456916231187405 www.psychologicalscience.org/PPS ist norm psychology. According to the latter, the psychological processes that explain normative behavior are domain-specific and genetically inherited. In Heyes’s view, those processes are either implicit, domain-general, and genetically inherited, or explicit, domain-specific, and culturally inherited. Heyes’s focus is on the evidence from human ontogeny; here I want to look at the evidence from human evolution. The ontogenetic claims made by the gadgets account have important phylogenetic implications. Specifically, I want to look at how a cultural evolutionary account of norms aligns with archaeological data; in particular, the stone-tool record. At the outset, there are two important points to be made here.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  22. 912332.696139
    Introduction to Thematic Section: Archaeology and Cognitive Evolution In 1954 Christopher Hawkes proposed his influential “Ladder of Inference” model for archaeological interpretation (Hawkes, 1954). Hawkes was concerned with the limitations of “where and when” archaeology; that is, archaeology that was overly focussed on geography and chronology. The problem with where and when archaeology was that, in limiting itself “[...] to a mere external chronicling of material culture traits, it will be stopping short of its proper anthropological objective, and will simply be compiling statistics when it should be revealing culture.” (Hawkes, 1954: 156). A properly anthropological archaeology, on the other hand, would acknowledge that “[...] the statistical assembling of many archaeological data still can leave one outside the cultural reality of the life of the peoples one is studying” (1954: 160). In other words, the point of archaeology is to ‘get inside’ the cultural lives of past populations, and simply documenting the age and location of artifacts only gets us so far toward that goal.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  23. 912444.696173
    What can philosophy offer the discipline of cognitive archaeology? One answer to this question is: analysis. Philosophers do not have to coordinate excavations, collate findings, or build data sets. Most of our time is spent reading, writing, and thinking. But what should philosophers of cognitive archaeology think about? Luckily, there is no shortage of topics apt for analysis.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  24. 912474.696197
    The philosophy of cognitive paleoanthropology involves three related tasks: (1) asking what inferences might be drawn from the paleontological and archaeological records to past cognition, behavior and culture; (2) constructing synthetic accounts of the evolution of distinctive hominin capacities; (3) exploring how results from cognitive paleoanthropology might inform philosophy. We introduce some distinctive cognitive paleoanthropological inferences and discuss their epistemic standing, before considering how attention to the material records and the practice of paleoanthropology can inform and transform philosophical approaches.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  25. 912506.69622
    The Bohr and von Neumann views on the measurement process in quantum mechanics have been interpreted for a long time in somewhat controversial terms, often leading to misconceptions. On the basis of some textual analysis, I would like to show that – contrary to a widespread opinion – their views should be taken less inconsistent, and much closer to each other, than usually thought. As a consequence, I claim that Bohr and von Neumann are conceptually on the same side on the issue of the universality of quantum mechanics: hopefully, this might contribute to a more accurate history of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics.
    Found 1 week, 3 days ago on PhilSci Archive
  26. 1062002.696248
    We take up Jason Brennan’s critique of democracy as formulated in his monograph Against Democracy (2016) and discuss the arguments that Åsa Wikforss presents against Brennan’s views in her book Därför demokrati (2021). Both authors grant the importance of knowledge for political decision-making, but they differ in their respective understandings of what counts as knowledge and they draw very different conclusions from the relevant knowledge requirement. Our general aim is to detect problems in democracy as well as in attempts to criticize democracy. We also briefly consider Brennan’s positive proposal to replace democracy by “epistocracy”, a form of government according to which only those citizens are entitled to vote who are “competent” in a sense to be discussed. Our aim is not to propagate any particular form of government. We merely wish to help the reader to recognize that democracy in particular involves a whole lot of assumptions that are in need of a better justification than what is normally provided.
    Found 1 week, 5 days ago on Tero Tulenheimo's site
  27. 1183246.696271
    When you think about the reasons that may justify the adoption of a democratic regime rather than any other alternative system, most of us will think of the value of political equality, the respect and dignity of persons viewed as moral equals, making sure that everyone’s interests are taken into account in collective-decision making, leaving the possibility of getting rid of incompetent/corrupt political leaders open, favoring the competition between a plurality of views, and probably a few others. …
    Found 1 week, 6 days ago on The Archimedean Point
  28. 1311050.696293
    A peculiar feature of our species is that we settle what to believe, value, and do by reasoning through narratives. A narrative is adiachronic, information-rich story that contains persons, objects, and at least one event. When we reason through narrative, we usenarrative to settle what to do, to make predictions, to guide normative expectations, and to ground which reactive attitudes we think areappropriate in a situation. Narratives explain, justify, and provide understanding. Narratives play a ubiquitous role in human reasoning. Andyet, narratives do not seem up to the task. Narratives are often unmoored representations (either because they are do not purport to referto the actual world, or because they are grossly oversimplified, or because are known to be literally false). Against this, I argue thatnarratives guide our reasoning by shaping our grasp of modal structure: what is possible, probable, plausible, permissible, required,relevant, desirable and good. Narratives are good guides to reasoning when they guide us to accurate judgments about modal space. Icall this the modal model of narrative. In this paper, I develop an account of how narratives function in reasoning, as well as an account ofwhen reasoning through narrative counts as good reasoning.
    Found 2 weeks, 1 day ago on A.K. Flowerree's site
  29. 1316178.696322
    Even though quantum entanglement is today’s most essential concept within the new technological era of quantum information processing, we do not only lack a consistent definition of this kernel notion, we are also far from understanding its physical meaning [35]. These failures have lead to many problems when attempting to provide a consistent measure or quantification of entanglement. In fact, the two main lines of contemporary research within the orthodox literature have created mazes where inconsistencies and problems are found everywhere.
    Found 2 weeks, 1 day ago on PhilSci Archive
  30. 1431555.696348
    Einstein thought that quantum mechanics was incomplete because it was nonlocal. In this paper I argue instead that quantum theory is incomplete, even if it is nonlocal, and that relativity is incomplete because its minimal spatiotemporal structure cannot naturally accommodate such nonlocality. So, I show that relativistic pilot-wave theories are the rational completion of quantum mechanics as well as relativity: they provide a spatiotemporal ontology of particles, as well as a spatiotemporal structure able to explain quantum correlations.
    Found 2 weeks, 2 days ago on PhilSci Archive